The throat consists of the pharynx - the area behind the mouth and nasal cavity - and the larynx - your voice box. An important feature of the throat is the epiglottis, which is a flap separating the esophagus from the trachea (windpipe). The epiglottis closes when you eat or drink to prevent inhalation of food or liquids.
The throat also contains blood vessels, pharynx muscles, the trachea and esophagus. The only bones in the throat area are the hyoid bone under your chin and clavicle (collar) bone.
Cancer that occurs in the larynx and pharynx - which includes the base of the tongue and tonsils - is commonly called throat cancer. Throat cancer often develops from squamous cells (flat, thin, scale-like cells) on the moist tissue lining the larynx, pharynx or mouth.
Throat cancer usually develops in adults over 50.1 Men are 10 times more likely than women to develop the disease.1 Worldwide, there are about 290,000 cases of throat cancer diagnosed each year.2 An examination of the neck and throat may show the presence of the cancer.
Different cancers have different causes, and specific risk factors may increase your chances of developing cancer. It is important to know the risk factors of cancer so appropriate action can be taken such as changing a behavior or being monitored closely for a potential cancer. But, people with one or more risk factors may never develop the disease, while others diagnosed with throat cancer may have no known risk factors.
Risk factors of throat cancer include:
- Alcohol and tobacco use
- Male gender
- Older age
- Contracting HPV (human papillomavirus)
While symptoms may be a sign of some other condition, It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of throat cancer since it is highly curable when found early.1 Common symptoms of throat cancer may include:1
- Sputum (coughed-up mucus) may be bloody
- Lump may appear on the outside of the neck
- Abnormal-sounding breathing
- Chronic cough
- Neck pain or swelling
- Difficulty swallowing
- Throat pain
Screening tests are often used because they can be helpful in finding cancers early and decreasing the chance of dying from cancer. There are no standard or routine screening tests for throat cancer. Screening may be done during a regular check-up by your dentist or doctor. The exam will include looking for lesions and white or red patches of cells that have the potential of becoming cancerous.
Staging is the process of finding out how far a cancer has spread. The outlook (prognosis) for people with cancer depends, to a large extent, on the cancer's stage and is one of the most important factors in choosing treatment. Staging is based on information about how cancer initially develops, grows and/or spreads. Staging information is based on the results of the physical exam, endoscopy, and imaging tests (CT scan, MRI, chest x-ray, and/or PET scans).
After a diagnosis of throat cancer is made and the stage (extent) of the cancer determined, your doctor will suggest treatment options. The goal of treatment is to remove the cancer and prevent it from spreading. Treatments and surgical options may include:1
- National Institutes of Health; Cancer- throat or larynx; Available from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001042.htm.
- A Cancer Journal for Clinicians; American Cancer Society; Global Cancer Statistics, 2002. Available from: www.caonline.amcancersoc.org.
- American Cancer Society, HPV a Risk Factor for Oropharyngeal Cancer. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/hpv-oropharyngeal-cancer0507.
The da Vinci System is indicated for transoral otolaryngologic surgical procedures (i.e., use in removing tumors from the mouth, tonsils, tongue and throat through the mouth), but restricted to cancerous and non-cancerous tumors classified as T1 and T2 (i.e., early and mid stage cancers only). The da Vinci® System is not indicated for pediatric transoral otolaryngology surgical procedures. The safety and effectiveness of the da Vinci Surgical System has not been established in patients with poor mouth openings (< 1.5 cm), advanced tumors (e.g., invading the mandible, abutting the carotid artery, requiring bone resection, etc.). The da Vinci® System is not recommended for use in dental surgery (i.e. tooth extraction).
Serious complications may occur in any surgery, including da Vinci® Surgery, up to and including death. Examples of serious or life-threatening complications, which may require prolonged and/or unexpected hospitalization and/or reoperation, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: injury to tissues/organs, bleeding, infection and internal scarring that can cause long-lasting dysfunction/pain. Risks of surgery also include the potential for equipment failure and/or human error. Individual surgical results may vary.
Risks specific to minimally invasive surgery, including da Vinci Surgery, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: temporary pain/nerve injury associated with positioning; temporary pain/discomfort from the use of air or gas in the procedure; a longer operation and time under anesthesia and conversion to another surgical technique. If your doctor needs to convert the surgery to another surgical technique, this could result in a longer operative time, additional time under anesthesia, additional or larger incisions and/or increased complications.
Patients who are not candidates for non-robotic minimally invasive surgery are also not candidates for da Vinci® Surgery. Patients should talk to their doctor to decide if da Vinci Surgery is right for them. Patients and doctors should review all available information on non-surgical and surgical options in order to make an informed decision. For Important Safety Information, including surgical risks, indications, and considerations and contraindications for use, please also refer to www.davincisurgery.com/safety and www.intuitivesurgical.com/safety. Unless otherwise noted, all people depicted are models.
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